HTTP/1.1 200 OK Cache-Control: no-cache, private Content-Type: text/html; charset=UTF-8 Date: Mon, 30 Nov 2020 05:02:56 GMT 红杏网直播app

开发商“淡季”慎谈涨价 短期库存压力得以缓解

Editorials

Covid-19: breaking the chain of household transmission

BMJ 2020; 370 doi: 上半年广东省家具主营业务收入超千亿元 木质家具势头最强 (Published 14 August 2020) Cite this as: BMJ 2020;370:m3181

Read our latest coverage of the coronavirus outbreak

  1. Shamil Haroon, clinical lecturer in primary care1,
  2. Joht Singh Chandan, academic clinical fellow in public health12,
  3. John Middleton, president3,
  4. Kar Keung Cheng, professor of public health and primary care1
  1. 1Institute of Applied Health Research, University of Birmingham, Birmingham, UK
  2. 2Warwick Medical School, University of Warwick, Coventry, UK
  3. 3Association of Schools of Public Health in the European Region (ASPHER)
  1. Correspondence to: S Haroon s.haroon{at}bham.ac.uk

刚需房源迎集中放量 有楼盘将一次性推出1266套房源

The UK is one of the countries most severely affected by covid-19. Recent outbreaks in English towns such as Oldham, probably involving transmission within large multigenerational households, show the importance of getting the right public health measures in place now to prevent more widespread surges in infections.1

Current test and trace policies have mainly focused on preventing spread in care homes, hospitals, and in the community.2 However, contact within households is thought to be responsible for roughly 70% of SARS-CoV-2 transmission when widespread community control measures are in place.3 In Wuhan, the reproduction number (R) dropped from 3.54 to 1.18 after lockdown and cordon sanitaire. But the epidemic was only brought under complete control when Fangcang (field) hospitals were introduced to isolate cases outside the home, with R dropping to 0.51 after two weeks.4

Current UK guidance advises household contacts to isolate within the same home as the index case for 14 days.5 They make up the majority of contacts for infected individuals and are likely to remain exposed to the infected household member during this period of isolation.6 Despite guidance advising household members to socially distance, contacts are likely to interact repeatedly—during mealtimes, for example—and to share facilities such as bathrooms.

We know that transmission is more likely to occur indoors than outdoors.7 The cumulative risk to household contacts from an infected person is likely to be substantial during peak viral shedding. In one study in New York State, 38% of household contacts tested positive for SARS-Cov-2, and similar secondary infection rates have been reported in China.89 Transmission may be even higher among household contacts of essential workers, who are at greater risk of being infected than the general population.10

Household members who are older, have underlying medical conditions, or share a bed or vehicle with the index case are the most susceptible.91112 Children seem to be at lower risk of being infected.13 However, their stool samples and nasopharyngeal swabs can remain positive for SARS-CoV-2 for more than two weeks after symptom resolution,14 although their role in transmission remains to be established.

Governments should consider new public health measures to prevent household transmission as we prepare for a potential second wave. Household quarantine is likely to remain an important pandemic control measure, and government support for people quarantined at home is conspicuously absent in the UK: this position has been challenged by independent experts.15

Effective isolation

Effective isolation of index cases from household members could reduce secondary infections.12 Wearing masks within quarantined households may help, particularly if used by the index case as soon as infection is suspected.16 The World Health Organization recommends that infected people and unavoidable close contacts, particularly those in vulnerable groups, should wear medical masks, but Public Health England does not currently recommend this. Other measures that should be considered (and evaluated) include clear advice on enhanced personal hygiene; cleaning and disinfecting shared toilets and other common spaces, door handles, and touch points; and staggering mealtimes.

People who are unable to self-isolate safely at home could be accommodated in special isolation facilities such as hotels and hostels, an approach adopted by some other countries, including Italy, Finland, and Lithuania.17 In China, field hospitals were created to manage and strictly isolate patients with mild-to-moderate covid-19.18 Nightingale hospitals in the UK could be similarly repurposed to support isolation of infected people with mild-to-moderate disease. As medical and nursing care needs are mostly modest, the cost would be relatively low. However, such a system depends on access to rapid testing for anyone with symptoms or possible exposure so that infection can be confirmed and isolation started before transmission occurs. It would also require public trust that isolation in these facilities would be voluntary, safe, and supportive.

在第三场也是最后一场总统候选人辩论中,奥巴马就外交政策发起攻势,一再指责罗姆尼在重大国际问题上的立场不坚定,但未能给他对手迅速崛起的竞选活动一个致命打击。
3.50 First Dates
La La Land producer Jordan Horowitz returned to the microphone after being told about the mix up and said 'Moonlight won Best Picture' and insisting that 'this is not a joke'.
克雷·汤普森贡献19分,博古特也贡献了13分。勇士队也创下了自2002-03赛季小牛队14连胜之后的最佳开局。只需再有三场比赛的胜利,金州勇士就会追平1948-1949赛季华盛顿子弹和1993-94赛季休斯敦火箭共同创下的开局15连胜的记录。
The clue may be in the price: the H-share index is cheap. On seven times 2016 earnings, it trades at a lower multiple than Spain (with 22 per cent unemployment), Brazil (dependent upon commodities and thus China), and both Turkey and Egypt, affected by Middle Eastern turmoil.
mod风度+est→做事有风度→礼貌的,谦虚的
虽然仿生腿对截肢者来说是巨大的福音,但是它们与人体缺乏真正的神经联系,导致依靠仿生腿走路十分麻烦和劳累。但是去年,西雅图的居民Zac Vawter 安装了世界上第一支思想控制的腿,一种直接接受从他大脑发出信号的仿生肢体。

收集了一些明星们挑选南瓜的相片。看看这些照片,然后告诉我们:你准备好庆祝周三的万圣节了吗
至于英格兰嘛?或许最好的事情应该便是在此次比赛中无人会期待有任何事情的发生,而对于英格兰而言,不从小组赛中淘汰掉便是一个褒奖了吧。
['letis]
时尚界通常视历史为潜在灵感的百宝囊,可供随时汲取、混合搭配。即便如此,目前这一阶段对历史的依赖也太过极端。
Apple will this week test its customers’ loyalty, buying power and enthusiasm for innovation when it unveils the first iPhone to cost as much as $1,000.

Footnotes

  • 陶瓷环保治理:一体化整治成突破新方向
  • However, some lawmakers already are discussing a standoff again in late February over raising the federal borrowing limit. 'You can never count on policy makers to not shoot themselves in the foot,' Mr. Daco said.

摩根大通资产管理公司(J.P. Morgan Asset Management)基金经理格雷格森(Neil Gregson)表示,若事实如此,将需要沙特阿拉伯削减一定的原油产量来抵消其他中东地区国家增产的影响。该公司管理着35亿美元自然资源投资资金。
温斯顿?丘吉尔(加里?奥德曼饰)刚刚上任英国首相,就面临着一个他生命中最关键的抉择:暗流涌动,是与纳粹德国和谈,还是依旧保持坚定立场,为了国家的理想、自由而战斗。
n. 冰箱
The controlled test takes two-and-a-half hours and, according to theories, Nishi's score and subsequentIQ of 162 would be two points higher than famous physicist Einstein.
Zuckerberg also helped launch a lobbying group that is working toward immigration and education reform in the U.S called FWD.us.
肠道细菌正以我们想像不到的方式干扰着我们。新的研究指出,像帕金森综合症等神经退行性疾病实际上可能始于肠道,而不是大脑。越来越多的证据显示,慢性疲劳综合征可能要归咎于人体内的微生物群系。随着肠道细菌显示出控制食欲以及改变大脑结构的迹象,而且有引起大脑损伤而导致中风的表现,我们的这个小过客(肠道细菌)有着不容忽视的力量。

上半年 北京楼市稳字当先

References

View Abstract